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英语中什么叫状语?

一、什么叫状语?就是动词的八个状态:时间、地点、原因、状态、目的、结果、方式、程度.
修饰动词、形容词、副词以及全句的句子成份叫状语.例如:
My parents often tell us about their bitter life in the past.我父母经常给我们讲他们过去的苦难生活.
She studies hard.她努力学习.
I am very tired.我非常疲倦.
二、什么可以作状语?
1.副词:Say again.再说一遍.
Suddenly it began to rain.天突然下雨了.
2.介词短语:
Please come here in the evening.请晚上来这儿.
He wrote with a red pencil.他用红铅笔写的.
3.动词不定式(或不定式短语):
He went to see a film.他看电影去了.
My father was surprised to hear the news.
我父亲听到这个消息,感到惊奇.
4.分词(或分词短语):
He sat there reading a novel.他坐在那儿看小说.
The students went away laughing.学生们笑着走开了.
5.名词:
Wait a moment.等一会儿.
It can go all day and all night.它能整日整夜地走.
6.状语从句:
I’ll write to you as soon as I get there.
我一到那儿就给你写信.
He didn’t come because he had to stay at home to finish his home work.他没来,因为他不得不留在家里完成家庭作业.
三、状语的分类:
状语按用途可分为:地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、程度、方式、伴随情况等几类.
1.地点状语:
The students are doing their homework in the classroom.学生们正在教室里做作业.
2.时间状语:
I learned a lot from the peasants when I lived in the countryside.我在农村生活时,向农民学到很多东西.
3.目的状语:
They set out early so that they might arrive on time.他们早点动身,以便准时到达.
4.原因状语:
She will not go home because she has to attend a meeting.因为要开会,所以她不能回家了.
5.结果状语:
Li Ming studied so hard that he caught up with the others very quickly.李明学习如此努力,结果很快赶上了其他人.
6.程度状语:
I nearly forgot what he had promised.
我几乎忘记了他答应的事.
7.方式状语:
He came singing and dancing.他唱着跳着走过来.
8.条件状语:
If you work hard at English,you will do well in English.如果你努力学习英语,你的英语成绩就会好.
9.让步状语:
He went to school yesterday though he was ill.
昨天他尽管有病,仍上学去了.
10.比较状语:
Lesson Two is not so difficult as Lesson One.
第二课不像第一课那样难.
四、状语的位置:
一般说来状语在句中的位置比较灵活,它可以处于句首、句中或句末.
1.状语位于句首:为了强调状语或者为了使它与上下文紧密衔接,通常把状语放于句首.
Tomorrow I am going swimming.明天我要去游泳.
Here in the cinema house,smoking is not allowed.
在电影院这里不准吸烟的.
2.状语位于句中:状语在句中的位置是:
(1)如果没有助动词,状语就位于动词前面.
I often go to see a film.我经常看电影.
(2)如果动词前有一个或几个助动词,状语位于第一个助动词之后.
He has already had his lunch.他已吃过午饭了.
(3)如果动词是be,状语就放在be动词之后.
He is always at home.他总是在家.

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